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A urine drug test is a non-invasive diagnostic screening procedure that analyzes an individual’s urine sample for the presence of specific illicit drugs, prescription medications, or their metabolites.

Description: Urine drug tests are the most common method of drug screening due to their ease of administration, affordability, and ability to detect recent drug use. They are widely used by employers, healthcare providers, sports organizations, and law enforcement agencies to identify substance use or monitor adherence to treatment.

The procedure involves collecting a urine sample from an individual, which is then analyzed in a laboratory using immunoassay techniques, followed by confirmatory tests such as gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for positive results. The tests can screen for various substances, including marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, opioids, benzodiazepines, and barbiturates.

Urine drug tests detect the presence of drugs or their metabolites above a pre-determined cut-off level. Detection times vary depending on the substance, frequency of use, dosage, and individual metabolism. Generally, most drugs can be detected for 1-7 days after last use, with some substances like marijuana detectable for up to 30 days in chronic, heavy users.

Factors that can influence urine drug test results include body mass, hydration levels, urine pH, and the use of certain foods, supplements, or medications. False positives and false negatives can occur, which is why positive results are typically confirmed with more specific testing methods.